Board of Directors
Robert B. Shapiro, Lead Independent Director
Robert B. Shapiro has served as a Board member since November 2011. Mr. Shapiro is Chairman, Managing Director and Co-Founder of Sandbox Industries, a development firm that creates, launches and manages new business concepts. Sandbox Industries also manages venture funds, including the BlueCross BlueShield Venture Partners fund. Mr. Shapiro has served as the Managing Director of Sandbox Industries since its formation in 2004. He was formerly Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Monsanto from 1995 to 2000. Upon the merger of Monsanto with Pharmacia & Upjohn, he served as Chairman of the newly-formed Pharmacia Corporation. Previously, Mr. Shapiro was President and Chief Operating Officer of Monsanto from 1992 to 1995 and President of Monsanto’s Agriculture Group from 1990 to 1992, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of The NutraSweet Company, a subsidiary of Monsanto, from 1985 to 1990 and President of the NutraSweet Group of G.D. Searle & Co., or Searle, from 1982 to 1985, where he previously served as Vice President and General Counsel. Before joining Searle, Mr. Shapiro was Vice President and General Counsel of General Instrument Corporation from 1972 to 1979. Prior to this, he practiced law in New York City; served in government as Special Assistant to the General Counsel and later to the Undersecretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation; and served as a professor of law at Northeastern University in Boston and the University of Wisconsin in Madison. Mr. Shapiro has served on the boards of directors of the New York Stock Exchange (later NYSE Euronext), Citigroup Inc., Rockwell International, Silicon Graphics Inc., Sapphire Energy, Inc., Theranos, Inc. and Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc. He currently serves as a director of Chromatin, Inc., Advanced Animal Diagnostics, Inc. and Conservis Corporation, all privately-held corporations. Mr. Shapiro has served on the President’s Advisory Committee on Trade Policy, and on the White House Domestic Policy Review of Industrial Innovation. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Mr. Shapiro is a graduate of Harvard College and holds a J.D. from Columbia University School of Law.